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Anesthesia For Nurses

Evidence Based Practice Process

Steps of the EBP Process

*** In 858 we will focus on Steps 1-4. Steps 5 and 6 will be covered later in the program.*****

Step 1: ASSESS the Patient/ Problem/ Population
• Start with the patient or community—a clinical problem/ question arises out of the care of
the patient or community issues.
• EBP always begins with the end in mind.‚Äč

Step 2 of the EBP Process and PICOT

Step 3: Acquire the Resources creating a Searchable Question

PICOT/: Things to consider as Components of a Searchable Question

PICOT  Things to Consider:
(P): Patient, Problem, Program or Population

Who or what should be included ethnicity, age, sex, gender, etc to define the Problem

(I): Intervention

What can you do to fix the problem or situation

(C) Comparison  Not every intervention or issue has a comparison problem; no is an acceptable comparison
(O) Outcome What do you want to happen, reduce disease, rate, etc
(T) Type of Question What type of foreground question are you asking
(T) Time How long


Type of Question with Type of Research Design

Type of Question

Best Type of Study/ Research Design


Randomized Control Trial (RCT) -> cohort -> case control -> case series


RCT -> cohort study -> case control -> case series


Cohort study -> case control -> case series


Prospective, Blind comparison to a Gold Standard

Etiology/ Harm

RCT -> cohort -> case control -> case series

Cost analysis

Economic Analysis


Ethnography, Phenomenology, Grounded Theory, Focus Group

Step 4: Critical Appraisal Tools